Comparative History

Here and there

What then is, generally speaking, the truth of history? A fable agreed upon.


This is where we set our earlier history into context (from the 1500s to the 1990s)

World Map, 1570
World Map, 1570


Other Records-based pages:

• A Brief History

• A Very Brief History

• Chronology

• On This Day

• In This Week

• In This Month

• This Year

• Royalty

• Titbits from the records

• Island History

For the pre-discovery history of St Helena, see our pages Geology of St Helena, Before Discovery and Endemic Species.

Our Comparative History

Please note that the column entitled ‘Britain’ includes the separate kingdoms until their amalgamation.

Below: 1500s1600s1700s1800s1900s


St Helena




1502: St Helena is discovered by João da Nova
1503: Ascension Island is discovered by Portuguese navigator Afonso de Albuquerque
1506: Tristan da Cunha is discovered by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha


1504: Michelangelo completes ‘David’
1505: Portuguese begin building forts in Africa
1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa
1507: The ‘New World’ is named America
1508: Portuguese colonise Madagascar


1515: A Rhinoceros visits
1516: Fernão Lopez arrives, the first inhabitant

1510: England is hit by Plague
1513: The English win the battle of Flodden Field; King James IV of Scotland is killed
1515: Cardinal Wolsey becomes Lord Chancellor of England
1516: Coffee is introduced from the Americas

1510: Portuguese occupy Goa (India)
1511: Portuguese begin to occupy Malaysia
1512: Nicolaus Copernicus publishes Commentariolus, saying that the Earth & Planets orbit the Sun
1512: Michelangelo completes the Sistine Chapel ceiling
1513: Machiavelli writes ‘The Prince’, a treatise about politics
1513: Florida is discovered
1516: Portuguese begin trading with China
1517: Martin Luther founds Protestantism
1518: First enslaved people people taken to the Americas
1519: Conquistador Cortéz arrives in Mexico
1519: Charles V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII



1520: Chocolate is introduced from the Americas

1521: Ferdinand Magellan discovers The Philippines
1526: The Mughal Empire in India is established
1527: Charles V sacks Rome and captures Pope Clement VII



1532: King Henry VIII declares himself Head of the English Church
1533: King Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn
1535: Thomas Moore is beheaded by King Henry VIII
1536: Anne Boleyn is beheaded by King Henry VIII
1537: William Tyndale publishes The New Testament in English

1530: Portuguese colonise Brazil
1532: Conquistador Pizarro arrives in Peru
1533: Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia
1534: French arrive in Canada
1536: The Inquisition is established


1546: Fernão Lopez dies on St Helena

1541: The Reformation begins in Scotland under John Knox
1549: The Church of England introduces the Book of Common Prayer

1541: Calvinism begins in Switzerland
1545: Inca Empire is overthrown by the Spanish Conquistadores



1550: English trade with West Africa begins
1553: Queen Mary I tries to take England back to Catholicism
1553: Tobacco is introduced from the Americas
1558: England loses Calais, its last territory in France




1562: England begins shipping people from West Africa to be enslaved
1563: Plague kills around 20,000 in London
1564: William Shakespeare is born

1562: The first Huguenot Rebellion begins in France



1570: Queen Elizabeth I is formally excommunicated by Pope Pius V

1572: The last Inca king is executed by the Conquistadores
1574: Portuguese colonise Angola
1577: The first English colonies are established in North America
1579: Francis Drake founds ‘New Albion’ (California)


1580: Francis Drake, circumnavigating the world, locates St Helena but does not land
1584: William Barrett is the first Englishman to write about St Helena
1588: The First Englishman visits
1589: Dutchman Jan Huygen van Linschoten visits and starts the myth of our discovery being on 21st May

1587: Mary Queen of Scots is executed by Queen Elizabeth I
1588: The Spanish Armada is defeated (partly by the weather)

1582: The Gregorian Calendar replaces the Julian Calendar on the orders of Pope Gregory XIII
1585: Gerardus Mercator introduces his new way of drawing maps


1593: Captain Sir James Lancaster makes his first visit

1591: First English voyage to the East Indies
1593: Plague kills about 1/20 of the population of London
1594: England begins trading with India
1597: William Shakespeare publishes ‘Romeo & Juliet’
1599: William Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre opens in London

1595: Dutch begin colonising the East Indies


1603: Sir James Lancaster visits again
1608: Dutch officer Admiral Wittert visits and the Dutch take an interest

1600: The East India Company is founded
1605: The Gunpowder Plot fails to destroy Parliament

1600: Edo period begins in Japan
1602: The Dutch East India Company (VoC) is founded
1603: French start colonising North America
1607: First permanent English settlement in America is established: Jamestown, Virginia
1609: Dutch take Ceylon from Portuguese
1609: Dutch found Manhattan


1613: Dutch warship the Witte Leeuw arrives to St Helena, and loses a brief but spectacular naval action with two Portuguese carracks

1611: The King James Bible is first published
1616: Death of William Shakespeare

1611: The East India Company begins trading with India
1614: European exploration of Australia begins
1618: Dutch begin taking East Indies from Portuguese
1618: The Thirty Years War begins in Europe
1619: The first enslaved people are imported to the English colony of Virginia


1625: British & Dutch fight the Portuguese for possession of St Helena (unsuccessfully)

1620: English enter into an agreement with the Dutch to share the spice trade

1620: The Mayflower brings English pilgrims to America
1625: Dutch found New Amsterdam (now New York)
1626: In the Vatican, St. Peter’s Basilica is completed


1633: The Dutch formally claim St Helena, planning to occupy & fortify it


1631: Dutch seize the Gold Coast (Ghana) from the Portuguese
1633: Galileo is tried by the Inquisition for the ‘heresy’ of saying the earth is not the centre of the universe
1637: The East India Company starts trading with Canton (China)


1644: Richard Boothby proposes to The East India Company that St Helena be colonised
1649: The East India Company begins using St Helena as a rallying point for its homeward-bound vessels

1640: Torture is outlawed
1641: Irish unsuccessfully rebel against English rule
1642: The English Civil War begins
1645: The Royal Society is founded
1649: King Charles I is executed

1640: English colonise Madras (India)
1642: The Dutch discover New Zealand
1642: Blaise Pascal designs the first mechanical adding machine


1651: The Dutch abandon plans to occupy St Helena
1657: Oliver Cromwell grants The East India Company patents to occupy and develop St Helena
1658: Dutchman Johan Nieuhof visits
1658: The East India Company decides to occupy St Helena
1659: Governor Dutton builds the Fort of St. John
1659: The English occupy & fortify St Helena

1651: The English Civil War ends

1652: Dutch found Cape Town in South Africa
1653: Mughal emperor Shäh Jahän completes the Täj Mahal
1655: The English take over Jamaica


1660: The fort is renamed James Fort, the town Jamestown and the valley James Valley, in honour of the Duke of York, later King James II
1661: King Charles II formalises The East India Company occupation with a Charter
1667: People displaced by the Great Fire of London are brought to St Helena (possibly)

1665: The Great Plague hits London and kills about 100,000
1665: War is declared against the Dutch
1666: The Great Fire devastates London

1664: The English capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York


1671: The first chaplain of The East India Company arrives
1672: The Dutch VoC fleet invades and captures St Helena
1673: King Charles II re-affirms England’s ownership of St Helena by Royal Charter
1673: Dutch invaders are expelled by Richard Munden and his force
1675: enslaved people begin to be sent regularly to St Helena
1677: Edmond Halley visits and catalogues the stars in the Southern hemisphere and observe the Transit of Mercury

1675: The Greenwich Observatory is founded

1670: Charleston is founded



1687: Isaac Newton publishes his Laws of Motion

1682: Louisiana is claimed by France
1685: Louis XIV of France begins severe persecution of French Protestants


1690: Several French Protestants arrive and start a wine industry
1691: Captain Dampier visits
1693: Governor Joshua Johnston is shot and killed during the ‘Jackson Mutiny
1698: Rats and goats reported to be out of control and destroying the island

1694: Bank of England is established
1699: Thomas Savery demonstrates the first Steam Engine

1692: The Salem Witch Trials begin in America


1708: Council approves Governor John Roberts’ scheme to rebuild James Fort, creating what is now The Castle

1701: First daily newspaper begins publication, the Daily Courant
1707: The Act of Union establishes Great Britain
1708: The East India Company is reformed and expanded

1703: Peter the Great founds St. Petersburg


1710: The Great Wood is reported destroyed
1715: Governor Pyke proposes that the island be abandoned and everybody moved to Mauritius

1710: St. Paul’s Cathedral in London is completed
1715: First Jacobite Rebellion

1718: New Orleans is founded



1720: Many lose fortunes in the South Sea Bubble share fiasco
1721: Robert Walpole becomes Britain’s first Prime Minister

1723: Slavery is abolished in Russia by Peter the Great


1733: Coffee plants are introduced to the island



1742: The island’s first hospital is built

1742: First water-powered cotton mill begins operation
1745: Second Jacobite Rebellion




1755: This Lisbon Earthquake kills many and probably destroys (inter alia) many documents relating to the discovery of St Helena
1757: British rule in India is established


1761: Nevil Maskelyne visits to observe the Transit of Venus


1762: Catherine the Great becomes ruler of Russia
1765: The Stamp Act causes unrest in the British-American colonies
1769: Captain James Cook explores Australia and New Zealand


1771: Captain James Cook visits
1774: St. James’ Church is completed, the oldest Anglican Church in the southern hemisphere
1775: Captain James Cook visits for the 2nd time
1776: Horatio Nelson visits (before he was famous)


1773: The East India Company starts operations in Bengal to smuggle opium into China
1775: The American Revolutionary War begins
1776: The American Declaration of Independence is signed
1779: The Xhosa wars begin between the British, Boers and Xhosa peoples in South Africa


1783: The ‘Arrack Rebellion’ is caused by attempts to control drunkenness


1781: Los Angeles is founded
1783: The American Revolutionary War ends with the Treaty of Paris
1787: The American Constitution is agreed
1789: George Washington becomes first President of America
1789: French Revolution begins


1790: Saul Solomon arrives on St Helena
1791: Plantation House is built
1792: Captain Bligh visits
1792: It becomes illegal to import enslaved people


1791: Mozart premieres The Magic Flute
1793: Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette are executed
1795: La Marseillaise becomes the French National Anthem
1796: The British capture Ceylon from the Dutch
1796: Napoleon wins his first victory as a military commander
1797: Napoleon conquers Venice
1799: Napoleon becomes First Consul of France in a Coup


1805: Arthur Wellesley, the 1st Duke of Wellington visits, and nearly drowns

1801: The United Kingdom is enlarged by adding Ireland to Great Britain
1803: Britain and France (under Napoleon) declare war
1805: The Battle of Trafalgar makes Britain the dominant sea power
1807: The Slave Trade is made illegal

1803: America expands by buying the claimed French territories
1804: World population reaches 1 billion
1804: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French
1805: Napoleon defeats the Russians and Austrians at Austerlitz
1806: The Cape Colony becomes British
1808: Beethoven performs his 5th Symphony


1810: Chinese labourers arrive
1810: Tristan da Cunha is settled by Jonathan Lambert, from the USA
1815: St Helena is chosen to detain Napoleon
1815: Britain claims Ascension Island
1816: The UK claims and occupies Tristan da Cunha
1816: Many descriptions and histories of St Helena begin to appear
1817: William Thackeray visits as a child and sees Napoleon
1818: All children born to enslaved people are declared to be free

1813: Jane Austen publishes Pride and Prejudice
1818: Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein
1819: The Peterloo Massacre is perpetrated

1810: Punjab War begins in India
1812: Napoleon fails to conquer Moscow
1814: Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba
1815: Mount Tamboura erupts killing more than 71,000 people - the biggest eruption in recorded history
1815: Napoleon escapes from Elba; resumes power but loses the Battle of Waterloo and surrenders to the British
1819: Singapore is established by The East India Company


1821: Napoleon dies at Longwood House
1827: The emancipation of enslaved people begins
1829: Mynah Birds are introduced to control cattle ticks
1829: The ‘Inclined Plane’ railway from Jamestown to the Ladder Hill Fort begins operating

1824: Cadbury’s chocolate is first produced
1825: The first railway opens, from Stockton to Darlington
1829: The Metropolitan Police is formed in London

1820: Antarctica is discovered
1823: Britain occupies Burma (Myanmar)
1824: Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony is premiered


1831: The Jamestown Upper Theatre is destroyed by fire
1834: St Helena becomes a Crown Colony ending 175 years of rule by The East India Company
1836: The first British Governor arrives, Governor George Middlemore
1836: Charles Darwin visits in the HMS Beagle
1837: Attempts to set up a local whaling company fail
1838: Dr James Barry leaves St Helena

1831: Charles Darwin sets out on HMS Beagle
1833: The Slavery Act abolishes slavery throughout the British Empire
1837: Charles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist

1830: Belgium is created
1831: France occupies Algeria
1834: Spanish Inquisition is disbanded


1840: The British Navy begins intercepting Slavers, liberating the captives onto St Helena
1840: Napoleon’s body is returned to France
1842: William Alexander Thorpe is born on St Helena
1842: The St Helena Regiment is formed
1846: ‘The Rollers of 1846’ destroy 13 ships

1845: Irish potato famine begins

1840: Upper and Lower Canada merge to create the current state
1840: Treaty of Waitangi creates the state of New Zealand
1842: Anaesthesia used for the first time.
1842: Hong Kong leased to Britain
1844: World’s first Telegraph line begins operation
1848: Most of the south-western USA is won from Mexico by war
1849: Austria conducts the world’s first Air Raid, against Venice - using balloons
1849: Gold Prospectors arrive in California (‘The 49ers’)


1851: St Helena Coffee wins a prize at the Great Exhibition
1851: St. Paul’s Cathedral is completed
1854: Baptists arrive on St Helena
1858: Longwood House and Napoleon’s Tomb are transferred to French ownership

1851: Great Exhibition is held
1855: Invention of the Bessemer Process allows steel to be mass-produced
1858: The Westminster Clock containing the bell Big Ben is completed
1859: Charles Darwin publishes ‘On the Origin of Species’

1853: Crimean War begins
1854: The Battle of Balaclava leads to the famed Charge of the Light Brigade
1857: India rebels against British Rule
1858: British Crown takes control of India from The East India Company


1860: HRH Prince Alfred visits
1860: ‘White Ants’ from one of the ships carrying the enslaved are destroying Jamestown
1863: The St Helena Regiment is disbanded
1869: The Suez Canal opens, further reducing St Helena’s role in global shipping

1861: Queen Victoria’s husband Prince Albert dies
1863: First part of the London Underground opens
1865: Lewis Carroll publishes Alice in Wonderland
1866: First trans-Atlantic telegraph cable commences operation

1861: American Civil War begins
1863: France annexes Cambodia
1865: Slavery is abolished in the USA
1865: President Lincoln is assassinated
1865: American Civil War ends
1867: USA purchases Alaska from Russia
1867: Dynamite invented by Alfred Nobel
1869: Dmitri Mendeleev creates the Periodic table
1869: Tolstoy publishes War and Peace
1869: The Suez Canal opens


1870: The Liberated Slave Depot is closed. 25,000 have passed through St Helena, maybe 1,000 choosing to stay
1871: The ‘Inclined Plane’ railway is re-engineered to become Jacob’s Ladder
1874: The first flax industry fails
1874: High Knoll Fort is expanded to its present form

1871: Royal Albert Hall opens
1872: First international football match is played - England v Scotland
1874: The East India Company is dissolved
1876: Queen Victoria assumes the title Empress of India

1871: In Africa Stanley meets Dr Livingstone
1872: Yellowstone National Park is created in America
1875: Indian Famine begins - 26 Million people die in the following 25 years
1876: US General Custer dies at the Battle of Little Bighorn (as do many others)
1877: Edison invents the Phonograph
1879: Edison invents the light bulb
1879: Anglo-Zulu war ends with British victory


1882: Jonathan the tortoise arrives, aged about 50
1888: Streetlights are introduced in Jamestown

1881: Opening of the World’s first electricity plant and distribution system
1883: Treasure Island is published (maybe based on Fernão Lopez)
1887: First Sherlock Holmes story is published
1888: Jack the Ripper begins killing in London

1880: First Boer War begins
1881: First Boer War ends with British victory
1882: Britain occupies Egypt
1883: Volcano Krakatau explodes
1886: Karl Benz sells the world’s first car
1889: Eiffel Tower opens; so does the Moulin Rouge


1890: A large rockfall kills nine people and destroys 14 houses
1890: Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo arrives
1891: The ‘Rockfall Memorial Fountain’ is dedicated
1897: Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo departs
1898: Joshua Slocum visits while sailing around the world
1899: The undersea cable connects St Helena to the world

1894: Tower Bridge in London is completed
1895: Oscar Wilde is put on trial for homosexuality
1897: Bram Stoker publishes Dracula
1898: War of the Worlds by H G Wells is published

1890: Van Gogh dies
1892: Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker Suite is first performed
1893: New Zealand gives women a vote - the first country to do so
1896: Olympic Games are revived
1899: Second Boer War begins


1900: The first of 6,000 Boer PoWs arrive on St Helena
1902: The Boer PoWs depart from St Helena
1905: The last execution takes place on St Helena (for the Prosperous Bay Murder)
1907: The Flax Industry re-starts
1908: The lace-making school is opened


1901: The Commonwealth of Australia is formed
1901: Guglielmo Marconi sends the first radio message
1902: 2nd Boer War ends
1903: Orville & Wilbur Wright make the first controlled powered flight
1905: Albert Einstein publishes his Special Theory of Relativity
1905: 10,000 people die in an earthquake in Lahore, India
1906: An earthquake and fire destroys most of San Francisco, USA
1909: China annexes Tibet, the Dalai Lama flees


1910: Mr Mosely’s fish-processing industry starts - and closes
1910: The Duke of Connaught visits
1911: The SS Papanui arrives on fire, burns out and sinks in James Bay
1914: The island’s first cinema, Thorpes Bioscope, opens in Jamestown
1914: World War 1 begins and the island comes under Martial Law
1917: The island borders on starvation due to disruption of shipping by World War 1
1918: St Helena escapes the world-wide Flu epidemic

1911: Ernest Rutherford demonstrates that atoms have components (splits the atom)
1912: Ocean Liner Titanic sinks off the coast of Newfoundland
1914: World War 1 Begins
1918: World War 1 Ends
1918: Women aged 30 and over get the vote

1910: Union of South Africa becomes a British Dominion
1910: Japan occupies and colonises Korea
1912: Roald Amundsen is the first to reach the South Pole
1914: The Panama Canal opens to shipping
1917: Russian Revolution: Tzar overthrown
1918: World-wide Flu epidemic kills 20 million people
1919: British soldiers in India perpetrate the Amritsar Massacre


1920: Norwegian ship Spangereid arrives on fire and burns out in James Bay.
1921: The first Saint men leave to work on Ascension Island
1925: HRH Edward, Prince of Wales visits
1929: The island’s first car is imported to St Helena

1922: The BBC launches radio broadcasting in the UK
1928: Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin

1922: Egypt becomes independent
1923: An earthquake and fire destroys most of Tokyo, Japan
1924: Joseph Stalin becomes leader of the USSR
1925: Charlie Chaplin releases ‘The Gold Rush’
1927: The first talking picture, ‘The Jazz Singer’ starring Al Jolson, is released
1929: The American stock market crashes starting a world-wide Depression
1929: Mohandas Gandhi demands independence for India and starts civil disobedience


1934: The first flight over St Helena is made by a seaplane from HMS Dorsetshire
1936: Lord and Lady Baden-Powell visit
1939: World War 2 brings many troops to the island

1930: Amy Johnson flies from Britain to Australia, the first woman to fly solo across the world
1936: The BBC launches the world’s first broadcast television service
1936: Edward VIII becomes king but abdicates the same year
1939: Hitler invades Poland so Britain declares war on Germany; World War 2 begins

1930: The Chrysler Building opens in New York, USA
1931: Japan occupies Manchuria in North-western China
1932: The Empire State Building opens in New York, USA
1933: Adolf Hitler rises to power in Germany


1941: Education becomes compulsory and the Government of St Helena takes over all schools
1941: The RFA Darkdale is torpedoed and sinks in James Bay
1942: SS City of Cairo is torpedoed near St Helena and most survivors arrive here
1947: HRH King George VI visits with the Royal Family, the first visit by a reigning monarch of Great Britain
1949: The 100 Men leave for the UK


1941: Japan attacks the US Naval Base at Pearl Harbour, bringing America into World War 2
1945: America drops the first Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
1945: Japan surrenders and World War 2 ends
1945: The United Nations is created to preserve peace and defend Human Rights
1945: Russian troops advance into Berlin, Hitler commits suicide and World War 2 ends in Europe
1947: The state of Israel is created
1947: India gains its independence; Pakistan is created
1948: The ‘Cold War’ begins between Western and Eastern Europe
1948: Mohandas Gandhi is assassinated


1951: The Flax Industry reaches its peak
1956: The (current) General Hospital opens
1957: HRH The Duke of Edinburgh visits
1958: The first known radio broadcast is made

1954: Roger Bannister runs a mile in under 4 minutes

1950: The Korean war begins
1950: Senator McCarthy begins his purge of Communists in America
1951: Libya is the first African colony to achieve independence
1953: Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tensing climb Mt Everest
1953: The Korean war ends
1954: Civil war begins in Vietnam
1955: The Warsaw Pact is created
1955: Martin Luther King, Jr. starts the American Civil Rights movement
1956: Elvis Presley has his first #1 hit ‘Heartbreak Hotel’
1956: Egyptian President Nasser seizes control of the Suez Canal
1957: Treaty of Rome establishes the European Community
1957: The first artificial satellite, Sputnik, is launched by the USSR
1958: The first integrated circuit is created


1965: The Flax Industry collapses
1966: Democracy is introduced with a part-elected Legislative Council
1967: The island’s first radio station, Radio St Helena, starts broadcasting

1965: The Post Office Tower opens in London
1967: The Beatles release the album ‘Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’

1960: Massacre in Sharpeville, South Africa
1961: Berlin is divided by the Berlin Wall
1961: USA starts sending troops to fight the Vietnam War
1961: Russian Yuri Gagarin makes the first manned space flight
1962: The Cuban Missile Crisis nearly starts World War III
1963: President John F Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, USA
1966: The Cultural Revolution begins in China
1967: First successful heart transplant by Dr Christiaan Barnard
1968: Mass student demonstration in Paris
1968: USSR suppresses Czechoslovakian ‘Prague Spring’
1968: Apollo 8 becomes the first manned spacecraft to go beyond Earth orbit
1968: American Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated
1969: Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the Moon
1969: Half a million people attend the Woodstock rock festival


1971: St Helena adopts Decimal Currency
1976: St Helena banknotes begin circulating
1977: The first RMS St Helena begins service

1971: Britain adopts Decimal Currency
1973: Britain joins the European Community
1976: Concorde, the first super-sonic airliner, starts operations
1979: James Lovelock postulates ‘Gaia’ - that the whole Earth is an integrated living organism
1979: Margaret Thatcher becomes Britain’s first female Prime Minister

1970: Idi Amin seizes power in Uganda
1971: East Pakistan becomes Bangladesh
1972: The World Trade Centre (Twin Towers) opens in New York, USA
1973: America troops flee Vietnam as Communists take over
1973: America supports a military coup in Chile
1974: US President Nixon resigns over Watergate
1975: The first personal computers go on sale in the USA
1977: America launches the Space Shuttle, the first re-useable spacecraft, and probes Voyager 1 and 2
1979: Iran becomes an Islamic Republic
1979: Egypt and Israel agree a peace treaty


1980: The Ebony is re-discovered
1982: The first RMS St Helena assists the forces in the Falkland Islands
1983: The British Nationality Act 1981 denies Saints their right to live and work in the UK{1}
1984: St Helena gets a new flag, motto and Coat of Arms
1984: HRH Prince Andrew visits
1986: The first islanders leave to work on the Falkland IslandsW
1988: Prince Andrew School opens to pupils.
1989: the second RMS St Helena is launched in Aberdeen by Prince Andrew

1981: Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer
1982: Argentina captures the Falkland Islands but is expelled by British forces

1980: Zimbabwe is created under Robert Mugabe
1980: John Lennon is shot and killed in New York, USA
1980: ‘Solidarity’ agitates for political freedom in Poland
1984: Chemical accident in Bhopal, India kills 2,000 people
1984: Sikh extremists occupy the Golden Temple in Amritsar, India
1985: French agents sink Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior over nuclear weapons test protests
1986: Nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine, USSR
1986: Nations agree sanctions against Apartheid South Africa
1987: World-wide stock market crash begins in New York, USA
1989: The USSR collapses and the constituent states become independent
1989: Oil Tanker Exxon Valdez causes an ecological disaster in Alaska
1989: Chinese army massacres peaceful protesters in Tiananmen Square, Beijing


1990: The second RMS St Helena begins service
1995: Television is introduced
1996: The Internet first becomes available
1999: Saints begin celebrating the start of the new Millennium{2}

1990: Margaret Thatcher resigns as British Prime Minister
1991: Tim Berners-Lee launches the Internet
1992: Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales separate
1992: The Church of England decides to allow women to become priests
1994: The Channel Tunnel opens, linking Britain and France by rail
1995: Barings Bank collapses following fraud by Nick Leeson
1996: Cattle deaths begin from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (‘Mad Cow Disease’)
1997: Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in Paris
1997: First clone, Dolly the sheep, is born
1998: The ‘Good Friday Agreement’ ends fighting in Northern Ireland

1990: Namibia gains independence from South Africa
1990: Apartheid breaks down and Nelson Mandela is released from prison in South Africa
1990: Hubble Telescope is launched
1990: Germany is re-unified
1991: Iraq is expelled from Kuwait by an international force
1991: 125,000 people die in flooding in Bangladesh
1992: UN holds its first summit on Climate Change
1993: The Maastricht Treaty formally establishes the European Union
1994: Civil war breaks out in Rwanda
1994: Nelson Mandela becomes the first black President of South Africa
1997: The Kyoto Climate Change Protocol is adopted by the United Nations
1998: US and UK forces invade Iraq, deposing President Saddam Hussein
1999: People around the world begin celebrating the start of the new Millennium
1999: The European Single Currency (Euro) is created

{a} Chris and Sheila Hillman

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{1} Restored in 2002.{2} Events shown on this page stop at 31st December 1999.

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