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White Ants

A pest by any other name…

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Dumb parts, properly connected into a swarm, yield smart results.
Kevin Kelly

More than just slaves were liberated from the intercepted slave ships.

This page is in indexes: Island Structures, Island History, Island Detail

White Ants [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]
White Ants

Below: TermitesOther ‘White Ants’Read More

‘White Ants’ is the local name for termites. At first site, termites may appear to be small ants; only white. The name ‘white ants’ comes from early English; the word ‘termite’ was introduced in the 18th Century.

Termites

Termite Facts

The most common kind live in the soil from just below the surface to as much as 4m down. Up to two million termites inhabit a colony. These colonies consist of a network of tunnels and chambers built around a King and Queen whose sole job is to reproduce. In fact, in some of the 55 termite species, queens can lay up to 86,000 eggs a day. Often the queen’s swollen body can weigh more than a pencil. The rest of the colony is made up of termites who all play specific roles in keeping the colony healthy. Among these termites are the workers. Worker termites keep busy 24 hours a day digesting wood fibres and other forms of cellulose which they eat, digest and share with the other members of the colony. Workers also clean the royal pair, the King and Queen, and carry away the eggs.

More on the Wikipedia.

There are two types of termite on St Helena: Brown and White, but the term ‘White Ants’ is applied to both.

It is thought termites were introduced in the 1840s when slave ships were being intercepted by the Royal Navy and brought to St Helena for the slaves to be liberated. The serviceable ships were sold but many were in a very poor condition and these were broken up and the wood used in construction projects or just for firewood. At least one of these broken-up ships is thought to have been infested by termites that thereby got a foothold on St Helena.

Tree destroyed [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]
Tree destroyed
Papers destroyed [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]
Papers destroyed

Over the following decades the termites ravaged Jamestown and commenced spreading throughout the island. Many buildings, including Churches and fine historic buildings were infected. Many were lost. In 1853 a ‘White Ant Committee’ was set up but it was unable to stem the tide. Fulminate of Mercury was tried, as later was DDT, both now banned and only marginally effective. The Records{1} show that, on 23rd June 1861 A service at St. James’ Church was interrupted when hundreds of termites were found to be eating through a desk and then the Bible. When The Market was constructed in 1865 it was built entirely from metal. In 1927 60 nests were discovered in the vicinity of Plantation House.

Those buildings that were restored now feature metal structural elements where previously these would have been wooden, many of these being re-used railway tracks, maybe from Our (Other) Railway. The roof structure at St. James’ Church, for example, has metal struts where there would previously have been wooden beams, as do all other older churches.

Modern buildings use termite-resistant timbers - teak and iroko - and lintels are usually made of concrete. Lime Hemp has also been proposed as an Eco-friendly termite-resistant building material, as have Bamboo and Eucalyptus (suitably treated).

It is thought that rain prompts the termites to leave their nests (they fly!) and found new colonies; the wet soil is more readily penetrated to form a new nest. A prolongued period of heavy rain was blamed for an outbreak of termite infections in Levelwood in 2015.

It isn’t just wood that the termites destroy. They eat anything containing cellulose. As the worshippers at St. James’ Church found in 1861, they eat paper and the early records of local charity the Women’s Corona Society were eaten by termites while stored in the President’s home. Some of the papers stored in the Post Office Building were destroyed and the Public Library also suffered. They also invade trees, and these are frequently felled revealing severe termite-damage which could, if left undetected, have caused the tree to collapse catastrophically, without warning. Fabrics are also susceptible, and when a new Roman Catholic Priest arrived in 2008 he brought with him a plaster Virgin Mary to replace the old wooden one that the termites had eaten.

Other ‘White Ants’

In addition to the ‘official’ meaning explained above, a few Saints also use the term ‘White Ants’ for a somewhat darker purpose - as a derogatory term for the British ex-pats brought here to help run the Government. The term is officially discouraged and is probably racist. It surfaces occasionally in the media, for example in this fragment of a letter published in the St Helena Independent on 6th December 2013:

…Why all our concerns to our newspaper, the Independent? Nobody from government or those that are supposed to look out for us don’t reply. It would be nice if they did. Especially our water is a disgrace on the part of St Helena Government. Government say ‘value for money’ - it must be a joke. A white ant joke it looks like - please do something about our discoloured smelly yellowish water or go home now.

white ant Facebook comment [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]

Read More

Below: Article: “Boffin’s gut feeling in bio-fuel quest”Not just here.And finally…

Article: “Boffin’s gut feeling in bio-fuel quest”

Published by Associated Press, November 2007{2}

A team of US scientists poring over the intestines of a tropical termite have a gut feeling that a breakthrough in the quest for cleaner, renewable petrol is in store.

Tucked in the termite’s nether regions, they say, is a treasure trove of enzymes that could make next-generation biofuels, replacing fossil fuels that are dirty, pricey or laden with geopolitical risk. Termites are typically a curse, inflicting billions of dollars in damage each year by munching through household timber with silent, relentless ease. But gene researchers say the hind gut of a species of Central American termite could “harbour a potential gold mine” of microbes which exude enzymes to smoothly break down woody fibres and provide the insect with its nutrition.

Present-generation biofuels are derived from corn, sugar and other crops, whose starch is converted into ethanol by enzymes, fermentation and distillation. One of the problems, though, is that this product entails converting food into fuel. Hefty US subsidies to promote bio-ethanol is having price repercussions across swathes of the global food market.

Next-generation biofuels, though, would use non-food cellulose materials, such as wood chips and straw. But these novel processes, hampered by costs and complications, are struggling to reach a commercial scale. The termite’s tummy, though, could make all the difference.

Like cows, termites have a series of intestinal compartments that each nurture a distinct community of microbes. Each compartment does a different job in the process to convert woody polymers into the kind of sugars that can then be fermented into biofuel. The US team has now sequenced and analysed the genetic code of some of these microbes in a key step towards - hopefully - reproducing the termite’s miniature bioreactor on an industrial scale.

Their work, published in Nature, required scientists to venture into the rainforests of Costa Rica, where they plucked bulbous-headed worker termites from a large nest at the foot of a tree. Using fine forceps and needles, they extracted the contents of the third paunch, or hind gut, from 165 termites and sent this to a lab in California for sequencing. From this, some 71 million ‘letters’ of genetic code emerged, pointing to two major bacterial lineages called fibrobacters, which degrade cellulose, and treponemes, which convert the result to fermentable sugars.

Termite guts are incredibly efficient”, says Dr Andreas Brune of the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology in Marburg, Germany. “In theory, they could transform an A4-sized sheet of paper into two litres of hydrogen.

Dr Eddy Rubin, director of the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), an organisation that comes under the aegis of the US Department of Energy, said an important fundamental step had been made, even if a long road still lay ahead.

Scaling up this process so that biomass factories can produce biofuels more efficiently and economically is another story,” said Rubin. “To get there, we must define the set of genes with key functional attributes for the breakdown of cellulose and this study represents an essential step along that path,” he said.

More stories [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]

More stories on our page Read articles about St Helena.

Not just here.

Termites are not just a problem in St Helena. This from 2008:

A trader in the Indian state of Bihar has lost his life savings after termites infested his bank safe deposit boxes and ate everything. The trader had deposited currency notes and investment papers worth hundreds of thousands of rupees in a bank safe in Patna, capital city of Bihar. The bank says it put up a notice warning customers of the termites. The trader says he did not see it in time as he did not go to the bank for months after the notice went up. Bank officials admit they did not inform the customers individually about the termite problem. The termites destroyed everything, the trader said. The Bank said customers cannot blame the bank unless the locker is broken or damaged. In this case the trader is not entitled to any compensation for his loss.

And finally…

A golfer up at Longwood was having a particularly difficult time. He had sliced his ball off the fairway and landed on a termite mound. He swished with his four-iron, thrashed with a wedge, but after 24 strokes he had only succeded in demolishing the majority of the hill and killing and maiming the majority of the population of the mound. The remaining two termites looked at each other, wondering just what to do to be safe. One turned to the other and said “I think I’ll just sit on the ball!

closinghumourimage [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]

Laugh at funny whiteants humour - LOL [Saint Helena Island Info:White Ants]

‘The Pencils’ Cartoon{3}


Footnotes:

{1} The St Helena Records is a collection of documents dating back to the earliest days of St Helena, held in the Government of St Helena Archives. The Archives can be accessed in person or via email - see our Family And Friends page for more. From the records and other sources we have compiled an events database, which drives our events-based pages e.g. On This Day page. You can search our events database in various ways on our Chronology page.

{2} Reproduced for educational non-commercial use only; all copyrights are acknowledged.

{3} ‘The Pencils’ appeared in the News, usually satirising an event from the week. We do not know but suspect the cartoonist to have been the Editor, Johnny Drummond.



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