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Roads

Take me home…

What does it matter that we take different road, so long as we reach the same goal?
Mohandas Gandhi

Roads may not sound exciting, but many of our roads have a fascinating history.

 

Roads

Below: Earliest History • Napoleon - good for our roads • After Napoleon • More exiles; more roads • First Motor Car • Later 20th Century • Asphalt Machine • Newest Road • Mystery Road or Track • Rules for Road Users • Read More

The anchorage area in Jamestown was formerly known as ‘The Roads’.

Earliest History

Below: Out of Jamestown • Country Roads • State of these roads

Maps showing the development of our roads{a}:

Ken Denholm Map 1

Ken Denholm Map 2

Ken Denholm Map 3

Ken Denholm Map 4

Roads map 1933

Out of Jamestown

Roads were not an immediate priority for the arriving colonists under Governor Dutton in 1659. They spent most of their time in Chapel Valley (now Jamestown), only going ‘up country’ (as it is still called today) for hunting and exploration{1}.

As they became established they found there were parts of the island they needed to visit regularly, but getting out of the valley was not easy, given that it is surrounded by steep cliffs. Two routes became established:

Thornton, 1702-7
Thornton, 1702-7

These were not originally roads as we know them today; they were merely well-trodden paths. Side Path was certainly in a relatively primitive state in 1677 when Halley visited; we know he had difficulty transporting his scientific equipment up it.

Shy Road/Ladder Hill Road seems to have been improved first. When the Plantation (now Plantation House but then literally a Plantation) was developed in 1673 it became necessary to haul goods to and from Jamestown, and the rope-assisted zig-zag path was not suitable. The new road, built early in the 18th Century and originally known as ‘Ladder Hill Path’ and later ‘Castle Path’, started at the base of the old path, behind where the Museum of St Helena is now, and took much broader sweeps up the hillside to make it navigable with carts. At the time there was no fort at Ladder Hill but there was a gibbet from which criminals were hanged, in plain view of the populous in Jamestown. In 1710 ladies and visitors were carried up the new road by ‘Blacks’ at a charge of 1/6d(£0.075) per trip - which went, of course, to the owners, not to the slaves themselves. The road was improved in 1733 by Governor Pyke, much to the anger of The East India Company in London who thought the money should have been spent improving the island’s defences.

A better road up Side Path came next, using some of the imported slave labour overseen by the island’s military, probably in the 1680s, possibly as a result of Halley’s complaints but also possibly not: two alarm guns were to be placed on the Ridge at Alarm Forest (at Alarm House) and an improved road may have been built to facilitate the transport of both the guns and the subsequent resources - troops; ammunition; powder, etc. Side Path was later extended as far as Hutts Gate and eventually in the late 18th Century all the way to Longwood.

Ladder Hill ‘Road’ was improved in 1771:

7th October 1771: Road to Ladder Hill to be altered, Inhabitants paying half. Ladder Hill Road is the only Road kept in repair by the Company (i.e. The East India Company).

1781 by Lafitte (extract)
1781 by Lafitte (extract){b}

Lafitte’s map of 1781 (right) shows Side Path and both the old ‘Jacob’s Ladder’ path and the newer Shy Road/Ladder Hill Road.

The third route, up from the far Southern end of the valley, meeting Side Path at the top - now known as Constitution Hill - came much later.

Another project was the route up the eastern side of the valley to Mundens Fort, overlooking the landing place (Wharf). Completed in 1713 this was a significant piece of engineering, requiring a strong stone retaining wall on the outer side, and an enormous amount of stone cutting around the high sea-facing cliffs of Mundens Hill. Later extended beyond the fort, this became the only route into Ruperts Valley until the present route, Field Road was built by Governor John Field in the 1960s. (The Mundens route is still walkable as far as the fort but was lost to the sea above Romans Cove in September 1981{2}.) This route was eventually extended all the way round the island’s coastline as far as Banks Battery. You can see the route highlighted in the image below:

Aerial view, showing Mundens Road
Aerial view, showing Mundens Road

Country Roads

There were defences at Sandy Bay from the late 1690s (the defences are reported destroyed by Rollers in 1717) but there was no road and supplies were carried round the island by sea; a hazardous journey given that Sandy Bay is on the south-eastern side of the island so fully exposed to the Trade Winds and resultant seas. Governor Robert Jenkins built himself a house in Sandy Bay in 1741, but his only route there was an eight-mile cross-country horse ride so we assume he did not commute daily! However a rather precarious and winding road, extended from the route to the Plantation, followed two years later, and this remains today the road into Sandy Bay.

The cross-country route between Hutts Gate and the Plantation - incorporating what is now known as the ‘W Road’ (because of its shape) - was built around the same time as the Sandy Bay road, again based on an existing bridle path.

The route to Hutts Gate was extended to Longwood in or around 1787 when Governor Brooke identified the Longwood area as good for agriculture.

A route was proposed in the early 19th Century around the east (i.e. valley) side of High Knoll Fort, connecting upper Jamestown to Half Tree Hollow and the west of the island. But the Records report following consultation with the Directors of The East India Company:

15th February 1833: Council decides: New Road round the East face of High Knoll cannot be sanctioned in the present state of Indian finances.

Construction was never started{3}.

The state of these roads

In wet weather most of these roads were a quagmire and very greasy due to the presence of marl - a sort of sticky clay that covers a lot of the island’s surface. Sometimes they had a layer of broken stone placed over the worst sections, but this was the best that could be achieved with manual labour assisted perhaps with bullock-drawn carts. Fortunately the island has no significant rivers. The very few bridges that were required were invariably built of arched stonework, as was also used for the many miles of retaining walls. Rain is not uncommon on St Helena so for much of the year travelling must have been a nightmare.

Napoleon - good for our roads

Napoleon

Napoleon’s arrival on St Helena in 1815 changed everything. He could not, for security reasons, be housed in Jamestown (a decision with which the exile agreed - he valued his privacy), so Longwood House was chosen as his residence. His large staff had to be supplied, as did the many troops and defences set up to repel any attempt by his supporters to rescue him. This required a large number of new and improved roads, easily navigable in even the wettest weather. For example, a route had to be built down to Deadwood, where 500 soldiers were to be billeted.

In January 1816 it is recorded that Napoleon went riding in the direction of what is now Levelwood, but at that time there was no road so his journey was a rather adventurous cross-country ‘hack’. The accounts of his early time here say much about the state of the island’s ‘minor roads’ at the time, with several instances where the ox-cart intended to convey him and his party could not proceed due to the state of the road. On at least one occasion he was forced to get out and walk.

Fortunately (for our road network) no attempt was ever made to liberate Napoleon from his South Atlantic prison, so the 2,000-or so troops sent here to guard him had nothing much to do. Idleness leads to trouble, so they were put to work improving the island’s defences and its roads. By the time of Napoleon’s death in 1821 St Helena finally had the basis of a navigable road system, though much of the present network had not yet been developed.

Napoleon Street

Napoleon Street sign

What is currently Napoleon Street (in Jamestown) is clearly so-named because it leads out of town towards Longwood, where Napoleon stayed during most of his exile here, and also leads to The Briars, the other place he resided while Longwood House was being made ready. But what was it called before Napoleon arrived? We understand that it was previously known as Cock Street/Hill, but we don’t know either why or exactly when it was renamed. It may have been when the roadway was levelled and macadamised in 1838.

After Napoleon

Barnes Road, 1911
Barnes Road, 1911
Jamestown pre-1882 (Ladder Hill Road extension)
Jamestown pre-1882 (Ladder Hill Road extension)
Building China Lane?
Building China Lane?

The financial effect of the reduction in troops following Napoleon’s death was keenly felt, and steamships took over from sailing ships depriving St Helena of its importance in world shipping. What better to do with an otherwise work-less population than for the Crown (which took over the island from The East India Company in 1834) to employ them constructing infrastructure? The New Ground and Guinea Grass areas were built up in the 1850s, complete with most of the current system of roads (Sapper Way was added later). The road to Levelwood via Woody Ridge was built at around the same time, and then extended on to join the Sandy Bay road in its current configuration.

In 1847 construction began on a route from upper Jamestown, via the Heart Shaped Waterfall to Francis Plain, which would become known as ‘Barnes Road’ after Major George Barnes who supervised the project. Sadly the resulting route was found too steep for donkeys to pull carts, and was all but abandoned soon after its completion. It is navigable today only as a footpath. (More about this road on our The Heart Shaped Waterfall page.)

Another route was the one linking the ‘W Road’ to the Sandy Bay road, around the base of the Peaks and up Stitch’s Hill.

Shy Road sign

Perhaps the most important new road built in the 19th Century was the extension of Ladder Hill Road down the western side of the valley to what is now China Lane (near the Hospital), completed in 1882. By avoiding the steep zig-zag of what is now called Shy Road (which today is an upwards-only connection, with a near-impossible sharp right turn at the top), traffic flow between Jamestown and the Ladder Hill Fort and west of the island was dramatically improved. The new portion of the route was originally named Phillips Road, but soon the route was known as Ladder Hill Road in its entirety and the old lower portion from lower Jamestown became known as Shy Road. Incidentally we think we know how Shy Road got its name…see our Place Names page.

None of the routes to the west, along the ridge from Casons to Head o’Wain, Blue Hill, Thompsons Wood and South West Point, existed as roads in the 19th Century, though there were settlements and/or military installations in all of these. All these routes were bridle-paths only at this time.

Longwood Gate
Longwood Gate{c}

It is interesting to note that in the late 19th Century the opening and closing of gates along the road network was normal practice for road travel on the island. Most of the country roads passed over private land and very few were fenced so the various gates signified passing from one property to another and prevented the straying of livestock. Many of the old gateposts remain, usually as stout stone structures, and many place names derive from these gates: Red Gate at Red Hill on the road to Plantation; White Gate at the entrance to Plantation grounds; Green Gate at the entrance to Plantation forests from Scotland; Sandy Bay Gate at the entrance to Stitches Hill road; Hutts Gate at the entrance to Longwood district and giving access to Levelwood and Longwood roads; and Longwood Gate at the entrance to Longwood district.

We also think the image (right) shows the construction of China Lane (though it was probably also taken to record some event happening at St. John’s Church). Sadly we can’t date the image.

Someone was clever in 1885. The Secretary of State for The Colonies was advised that the roads on St Helena served no civilian purpose and were purely for the benefit of the military. As a result, responsibility for road maintenance was transferred to the War Department in London, which had much deeper pockets than the St Helena civilian administration! This plan was successful for only a while - in March 1909 a Road Tax was introduced at 3s/annum (£0.15).

More exiles; more roads

The impetus for improving the ridge route to Blue Hill and beyond seems to have been the housing of about half the Boer Prisoners at Broad Bottom from 1900-1902. Indeed it is highly likely that the Boers themselves were employed in the road’s construction. The Zulu Poll Tax Prisoners (1907-1910) were also employed in road works, amongst other construction activities.

Boer Camp, Broad Bottom
Boer Camp, Broad Bottom

Zulu Prisoners working on Side Path, 1907
Zulu Prisoners working on Side Path, 1907

 

The commencement of the Flax Industry in the early 1900s also created a demand for improved roads to transport the processed flax from the mills dotted around the island down to Jamestown for loading onto ships. Heavy Bullock drays required tougher roads, to which end a Road Tax was introduced on 1st March 1909 at 3s (£0.15). The Blue Hill road was upgraded all the way to Thompsons Wood in the 1920s.

Sadly the road improvements were not uniform. In 1924 the streets of Jamestown were described as being in a bad state of repair and even worse than the country roads; the gravel streets frequently produced swirling dust that found its way into all the houses and buildings.

And then a technological arrival changed everything…

The First Motor Car

The First Car

In 1919 motorised transport was prohibited on St Helena by Ordinance. This was revoked in 1927 and the first car arrived two years later. Early cars struggled with roads quite passable by ox-cart, so a programme of road improvements soon began. A motor roller and stone crusher arrived in May 1928 and by November the same year 60 miles of island road were declared ready for the expected influx of motor cars. By the end of 1930 there were 14 cars and 5 lorries enjoying these new roads.

Later 20th Century

Not one of our better roads
Not one of our better roads
Under repair…
Under repair…

The road into The Briars was opened in 1937. Sealing of roads began after World War 2 and the same process is used today. This is not Tarmac, as is used elsewhere in the world. Chipped stone is pressed into Colas - a bitumen substance - with a roller to form a surface. Theoretically the excess stone is swept up, but in practice it is usually left in drifts on the road, presumably in the hope that vehicles will press it into the road; a mostly failed hope and much of the loose stone ends up blocking the roadside drains. The road to Blue Hill was upgraded in 1959.

Following the closure of the Flax Mills in 1966 the resulting unemployed were deployed on Government-funded projects, including improved access to Levelwood and Sandy Bay. Field Road, the current route into Ruperts Valley from the junction of Constitution Hill and Side Path, was built by Governor John Field, opening in May 1968; fortunately so because the older route via Mundens Fort was closed beyond the fort in 1981 due to undercutting by the sea above Romans Cove{2}. And the creation of the island’s Diplomatic Wireless Station in 1965 led to upgrading of the road from Longwood Gate past Piccolo Hill (where the DWS Staff were housed) down into Bottom Woods.

In 1982 a new road was built by the Royal Engineers from New Ground road to join the Red Hill road near Model Cottage. This very useful connecting road was accordingly named Sapper’s Way (now shortened to ‘Sapper Way’). By this time the last horses on the island had died so apart from a number of donkeys used almost exclusively for fodder transport our roads were given over exclusively to motor vehicles.

The Mini-Roundabout outside the Canister in Jamestown, the island’s first, came into operation on 2nd February 1987 (the second and, so far only other one, in Scotland, came in July 1990. The one-way system around the flats opposite St. John’s Church was introduced in the 1990s. Ladder Hill Road (described in The ‘Blue Book’ for 1970/3 as this inevitably difficult and tortuous road) was widened in 2000 and the 15mph speed limit removed (it is now 20mph like the rest of Jamestown).

The Asphalt Machine

Scrapped Asphalt Plant
Scrapped Asphalt Plant

As incomes began to rise after the Millennium (and also as in 2004 Bank of St Helena began offering car loans) people started buying and importing newer and more modern vehicles. Performance cars began to appear and this led to rising criticism of the poor state of the island’s roads. The ‘spread and (hopefully) stick’ method of road maintenance was particularly unpopular due to the damage done to vehicles by the loose stones. Responding to this criticism, in 2011 Government of St Helena purchased an Asphalt Plant, intended to manufacture Asphalt on the spot so that our roads could be given a stronger, more even surface without the drifts of loose stones. Sadly, when the machine arrived it was discovered that significant parts were missing and those parts that were present could not be operated safely. After many failed attempts to obtain the missing parts the machine had to be scrapped, at great expense.

One of our major roads, Side Path, in October 2018
One of our major roads, Side Path, in October 2018{d}

Our Newest Road

For the construction of St Helena Airport it was necessary to build a whole new route to transport the materials and equipment for construction from Ruperts to Prosperous Bay Plain. The route chosen climbed the eastern side of Ruperts Valley, proceeding on to Deadwood, then circuiting Longwood and Bottom Woods down to the Airport. Initially just a packed-earth track, it was always planned that when the ‘Haul Road’ was no longer needed it would be properly surfaced and added to our road network. Surfacing of the entire length was finished in 2016 and the section east of the Bottom Woods junction immediately became the official road to the airport. The part from Ruperts to Bottom Woods was not opened to the public until 7th June 2019 - the Government of St Helena did not, until then, have the budget to maintain the road. The opening ceremony was performed by Governor Rushbrook.

The full road, 14km long, is officially named the Airport Access Road, and is divided into seven named sections: African Slave Road (at the Ruperts end), Airbay Road, Boer Road, Flagstaff View, Pipe Ridge Pass, Wirebird Way and Wainwright Way (at the Airport end). See the article (below) for how the names were decided.

Incidentally, the entire Airport Access Road is Asphalt-surfaced. Basil Read had Asphalt making equipment available for surfacing the Airport runway… Also, while the road remained unsurfaced, it became popular with motorbike and 4x4 enthusiasts as an unofficial off-road driving track, causing the Government of St Helena to issue press releases warning unauthorised users if potential prosecution.

The haul road route
The haul road route

Part-complete, November 2014
Part-complete, November 2014{e}

Construction Traffic
Construction Traffic

Surfacing, January 2016
Surfacing, January 2016{e}

The completed road
The completed road

 

A Mystery Road or Track

We came across this old French postcard of St Helena. It isn’t dated but we assume it to be middle- to late-19th Century (before the extension of Ladder Hill Road down to China Lane, which was completed in 1882). It shows (left) a track or road leading from somewhere behind the Baptist Church snaking up the hillside to meet the Shy Road/Upper Ladder Hill Road junction. We can find no mention of this route in the Records.

We can’t tell from the photograph if this was simply a footpath or whether it could be used by vehicles. From the gradient it is likely it was for pedestrians only, though it looks wide enough for a narrow cart. It was probably made to allow the soldiers in The Barracks (the buildings in the centre bottom of the image) to get more quickly to and from Ladder Hill Fort without having to travel further down into the town to ascend Shy Road.

Can you tell us more about this route?

The mystery road or track

Rules for Road Users

Summarised from our Driving in St Helena page:

Wrecked car
Try not to crash

Rain can still be a problem
Rain can still be a problem

Read More

Article: Naming the Airport Access Road

Government of St Helena Press Release issued 15th December 2015{5}

In July 2015 a competition to name the Airport Access Road was held in all Island schools. Run on behalf of the Environment & Natural Resources Committee (ENRC) the competition attracted 153 entries.

Naming the Airport Access Road

Chairperson of the ENRC, Councillor Pamela Ward Pearce, said: Due to the high quality of entries received and following a site visit to the Access Road, the Committee decided that the 14km road would lend itself to several names in different sections of the road. We therefore decided on seven names, with one student winning two prizes.

Certificates and prizes were awarded to winning students this week. Competition winners were:

Councillor Ward Pearce added: The Committee chose the winners based on the different elements along the Airport Access Road. We liked African Slave Road as this shows the area where the recent excavations uncovered the slave graves. Airbay Road was felt to encompass the flow of the road from the Airport to Rupert’s Bay. Boer Road and Pipe Ridge Pass were sections near the old roads of those names, while Flagstaff View and Wirebird Way are sections where you have a view of Flagstaff and the Wirebird nesting area respectively. Finally Wainwright Way was chosen to honour our own Sharon Wainwright who worked so hard to make the Airport a reality but sadly did not live to see it to fruition.

Laugh at funny Roads humour - LOL

Credits:
{a} Ken Denholm, from ‘A History of Road Development’. Last map from The ‘Blue Book’ for 1933.{b} UK National Archives MPH 1/251{5}{6}{7}{c} Derek Richards{d} Andrew Turner{e} St Helena Airport

Footnotes:
{1} By way of illustrating this point, Speery Island, off the island’s Southernmost tip, was not discovered until 1722 - 63 years after the island was colonised!{2} From the St Helena News Review, 4th September 1981: The Highway Authority wishes to inform the public that the road leading from Mundens Point to Ruperts Bay will be closed with effect from today. Part of that section lies over Romans Cove and has been seriously undercut by the action of the sea. The Authority therefore agreed that people using that section would be in danger and decided to close it.{3} Note also the pattern, established in The East India Company days and continuing even today, of infrastructure projects being proposed by St Helena and turned down by London.{4} We are told that the highest speed actually obtained on a St Helena road is 120mph, but obviously we have not verified that - and neither have the Police.{5} Reproduced for educational non-commercial use only; all copyrights are acknowledged.{6} Not to be confused with the St Helena Archives.{7} Download the full map.

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