blank [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Notes and Coins of St Helena

Money, Money, Money

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Money, so they say; Is the root of all evil today.
But if you ask for a raise it’s no surprise that they’re giving none away.

‘Money’ by Pink Floyd, from Dark Side of The Moon

St Helena has its own banknotes and coinage{1}.

This page is in indexes: Island Detail

Notes and Coins of St Helena [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Notes and Coins of St Helena qualifies as one of St Helena’s Industries.

Below: Current Circulating CoinsCommemorative CoinsCurrent BanknotesHistoryCoins in popular cultureOther moneyNote/Coin CollectorsThe golden rule?Should the SHP be scrapped?Read More

Current Circulating Coins

St Helena coins are the same size, shape and weight as their British Equivalents and with a similar face (obverse), differing only in the text. The text on a St Helena coin’s obverse reads “QUEEN ELIZABETH II St HelenA + ASCENSION{2}. The £1 coin has the text “Colony of St Helena” engraved around the rim{3}; the £2 coins have “Loyal and Faithful”.

But it’s the reverse that is more interesting. Our coins feature:

1 pence coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The 1p coin depicts a tuna fish, as can be seen (and caught) off St Helena{4}
Cupro Plated Steel, 3.564g, 20.32mm

2 pence coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The 2p coin depicts a laden donkey, formerly the backbone of St Helena transport
Cupro Plated Steel, 7.128g, 25.91mm

5 pence coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The 5p coin depicts Jonathan the tortoise, possibly the world’s oldest living animal
Cupro Nickel (75/25), 3.25g, 18mm

10 pence coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The 10p coin depicts dolphins, which can be watched in James Bay
Cupro Nickel (75/25), 6.5g, 24.50mm

20 pence coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The 20p coin depicts the Ebony, our National Flower
Cupro Nickel (84/16), 5g, 21.40mm

50 pence coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The 50p coin depicts a green sea turtle; they are rarely seen off St Helena but nest annually on Ascension Island
Cupro Nickel (75/25), 8g, 27.30mm

£1 coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The £1 coin depicts a Sooty Tern, seen commonly on Ascension Island
Nickel-Brass (5.5% Nickel), 9.5g, 22.50mm

£2 coin [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
The £2 coin depicts the full Coat of Arms of St Helena
Inner: Cupro-Nickel (75/25) Outer: Nickel-Brass (5.5% Nickel), 12g, 28.40mm

Commemorative Coins

Commemorative coins and coin-sets are available on the island, some of which are pictured below. The attractive coin plaque depicted above can be bought at the moonbeamsforall.com: Moonbeams Shop • opens in a new window or tab [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]Moonbeams Shop.

25p Tercentenary, 1973 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
25p Tercentenary, 1973

Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee, 1977 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee, 1977

25p Wedding, Charles and Diana, 1981 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
25p Wedding, Charles and Diana, 1981

Visit of Prince Andrew, 1984 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
Visit of Prince Andrew, 1984

50p Napoleon, 1986 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
50p Napoleon, 1986

50p 1947 Royal Visit, 2002 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
50p 1947 Royal Visit, 2002

50p Napoleon, 2002 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
50p Napoleon, 2002

Halley ’s 1676 visit [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
Halley’s 1676 visit

East India Company Commemorative Guineas, 2016

East India Company Commemorative Guineas, 2016 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

At the height of The East India Company’s trade, the Guinea remained the official currency, underpinning much of the Company’s growth and influence in the colonies. These souvenirs mark the bicentenary of the last-circulation coin.

They are struck to the exact same size and weight as the last struck circulating One Guinea coin, 8.4g and 24mm in diameter, and feature the spade design from the last circulating Guineas struck under King George III - a simplified shield with quarters containing the arms of England and Scotland, France, Hanover and Ireland.

The E.I.C mark features under the effigy of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

ISSUING AUTHORITY: 

St Helena

YEAR DATE: 

2016

FINISH: 

Proof

ALLOY: 

916.7 AU 22 Carat Gold

WEIGHT: 

42gm

DIAMETER: 

37mm

DENOMINATION: 

£1.05p

Current Banknotes

The current banknotes are as illustrated below:

£20 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

£10 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

£5 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Note that, unlike the UK, there is no £50 note, even though in a cash-based society like St Helena it would seem that would be quite useful. UK banknotes may also be seen in circulation and are accepted in shops.

History

1821 Halfpennies [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
Solomon, Dickson & Taylor Halfpennies [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

East India Company Farthing, 1714 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Coinage circulated on St Helena from the earliest days of settlement. The East India Company farthing (left) is thought to have been struck in Madras in 1714 and was found on St Helena. The detail on the flip side is of a lion wearing a crown.

The first local coins were introduced to St Helena in 1821 by the East India Company. 700,000 St Helena copper halfpennies dated 1821 were intended for use by the local population, greatly increased by the military garrison, who were guarding Napoleon Bonaparte in exile. But by the time the coins arrived, Napoleon had died and most of the garrison had left.

At around the same time, Saul Solomon, through his company Solomon, Dickson & Taylor, also issued £147-worth of tokens each worth one halfpenny. Although officially for use only in the Solomon’s shops, these actually circulated alongside the official East India Company coins for several years until they came to the attention of the East India Company Directors in London and orders were issued for their withdrawl.

After the crown took control of St Helena in 1834 the island used primarily British coinage, though some non-circulating commemorative coins were issued and from 1925 to 1961 South African notes and coins circulated alongside UK money.

Until 14th February 1971 St Helena, like the UK, used Pounds(£), Shillings(s) and Pence(d). The Pound was the same as our current Pound, but was divided into 20 shillings, each in turn divided into 12 pence. 1s was therefore worth £1/20 and 1d was therefore worth £1/240. Coins used were the ‘Crown’ (5s), ‘Half-Crown’ (2s6d), ‘Florin’ (2s), ‘Shilling’ (1s), ‘Sixpence’ (6d), ‘Threepence’ (3d, pronounced ‘thruppence’), ‘Penny’ (1d), ‘Halfpenny’ (½d, pronounced ‘haypenny’) and ‘Farthing’ (¼d). From 15th February 1971 St Helena, like the UK, converted to using ‘decimal coinage’ (“decimalisation”). Shillings were withdrawn and the ‘new penny’(p) introduced at £1/100. This is the system we use today.

1984 St Helena coins descriptions [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

In February 1976 the first St Helena banknotes were introduced, and in 1984 circulating coins were first introduced in the names of St Helena and Ascension Island in denominations of 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 50p and £1, each coin depicting flora and fauna that are special to the islands. All of the coins were the same size and composition as the corresponding British coins and valued with the British Pound at par. Their specifications can be seen in the poster (left).

Although they ceased to be legal tender{5} in 1976, British coins (and notes) continued to circulate on the island, and remain in circulation today.

Changes have been made to our coins since that first 1984 issue:

  • The five pence pieces originally issued showed the Wirebird, which is the national bird of St Helena, whilst the ten pence coins showed Arum Lilies (then our National Flower). These were changed to the current designs in 1998.

  • Queen Elizabeth’s effigy was redesigned on most of the denominations between 1991 and 1998.

  • Seven sided 20 pence coins were first introduced in 1998.

  • As with British coinage, older 5 and 10 pence pieces were resized in 1998 and the 50 pence was resized 2003, though older coins remain in circulation{6}.

  • In 2002 nickel-brass £2 coins were introduced, followed by bimetallic £2 coins the following year.

1984 5p and 10p coins [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]
1984 5p and 10p coins

Older banknotes were larger but with broadly the same design as their modern counterparts. There were also additional notes for £1 and £0.50p, now replaced by coins. The £20 note was not introduced until September 1986.

Old £20 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Old £10 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Old £1 [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Old 50p [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

1976 Banknote error

The first 1976 £1 and £5 notes contained a small but significant misprint. As can be seen from the images (below) the word “Angliæ” was printed as “Anglæ{7}.

1976 banknote error [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena] 1976 banknote error [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

If you know how many of these remain with collectors and what they now sell for, please contact us.

Coins in popular culture

It is common on St Helena to refer to current coins by the image they portray, rather than their value. Hence “two donkeys” 2 x 2p = four pence.

So how much is: two dolphins, a Jonathan and a tuna? Answer below.

Other money

Most businesses on St Helena{8} will accept foreign currency for payment, but usually only Flag of The United Kingdom [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]Sterling, Flag of The United States of America [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]US Dollars, Flag of The European Union [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]Euro and Flag of South Africa [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]South African Rand. Sterling is accepted at par (i.e. 1:1) with St Helena Pounds; the rates at which the other currencies are accepted will be based on (but not necessarily the same as) those published weekly by our local bank. These may differ from rates advertised on websites and from other sources.

Falkland Island coins are in unofficial circulation on St Helena. They are identical in size to their local equivalents, but bear different designs. They cannot, however, be exchanged at the Bank of St Helena and may not be accepted in all shops.

Falkland Island coins [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

£

Issues with Sterling

If you come here for more than a day you will want to use local money. But be aware that it may not be possible to exchange all of this for Sterling (GBP) on your departure. The Bank of St Helena often does not have any Sterling available. In 2013 the bank estimated that it needed c.£50,000 on Sterling per month to meet the demand of its customers. Importing UK sterling is a complex issue as there are restrictions on transporting currency as well as significant costs involved.

If you are here on a longer trip, a bit of planning will help. Sterling comes into circulation just after cruise ship calls, and most shops (including moonbeamsforall.com: Moonbeams Shop • opens in a new window or tab [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]Moonbeams Shop) will, if you ask, keep Sterling back for you, to exchange for local money.

It is hoped that, when the scheduled commercial air service begins, more tourist visitors will mean more Sterling comes onto the island.

Note/Coin Collectors

As far as we know there are no banknote or coin collectors on St Helena and no numismatic groups (if you know otherwise please contact us). The Government of St Helena does sell coin sets for collectors; please contact them for details.

We regret that Saint Helena Island Info does not have the resources to help with coin/note exchanges.

The golden rule?

Mike Olsson, writing in the St Helena Independent on 17th September 2010{12}, tried to describe the process whereby the UK backs St Helena’s pound with ‘Gilt-edged securities’. In a small typo he may have revealed more than he intended:

…every St Helenian Pound is secured with an investment, normally in UK guilt, with the same amount.

Should the SHP be scrapped?

In 2016 there was some debate about whether the St Helena Pound should be retained, the alternative being that the island would go back to using Sterling. The issues was raised in Legislative Council{10} in February 2016:

Many believe there are benefits in replacing St Helena currency with UK Sterling. Councillor Essex asked at the Formal Legislative Council{10} meeting on 12th February, “What are the benefits of St Helena continuing to have its own currency?” The Financial Secretary outlined the main benefits.

It’s a significant source of revenue,” Mr Owen said. He reported income from the Currency Fund averaged £191,000 for the period 2006/07 to 2012/13. Once costs were deducted for printing notes, minting coins and investment management charges, the averaged net income was £99,000 a year. “The transition to Sterling,” Mr Owen explained “will be difficult to achieve and could be expensive, depending on the transition option chosen”.

Maintaining adequate supplies of Sterling could be difficult if the in-flows brought by tourists are not adequate to maintain currency supplies. Bringing in additional is very expensive. “It depends not just on the number of tourists who come, but where they come from and the extent to which they bring cash or use payment cards” Mr Owen said.

Many countries view its own currency as a source of pride. “This was part of the rationale for introducing the St Helena Pound” said Mr Owen. It also brings a level of unique experience to the island for tourists. “Having what is probably one of the smallest currencies in the world is a further selling point and should not be undervalued,” Mr Owen concluded.{a}

The following month, the island’s Banking Regulator, Chris Duncan, waded in:

The Chair of St Helena’s Financial Services Regulatory Authority, Chris Duncan, has said he thinks St Helena will eventually have to switch to Sterling and abolish the St Helena pound.

This comes after the Financial Secretary dismissed the idea as expensive and difficult in last month’s Legislative Council{10}. It would mean the island would have to import more money as people would take it abroad with them, he said.

But now Mr Duncan says the local currency is unsustainable and creates problems for travellers. “The St Helena pound has served good purpose in the past,” he said. But “it can’t be used anywhere else. It can’t be used where Saints want to use it, and as the island opens up its access and people travel more and have more exposure to the need for an international currency, it becomes rather difficult to justify the continuation of the St Helena pound.

He said he would want to compare the facts and see which currency would be better, “but I suspect that at the end of the day St Helena will become - sooner or later - well advised to become fully part of the Sterling world and have as its currency, into the future, the Sterling pound.{b}

Callers to the Rattling Cages programme on 19th March expreseed the unanimous view that the island should switch back to using Sterling. Complaints were also made that the Bank of St Helena makes a charge for converting SHP to GBP and vice-versa, and often has inadequate stocks of GBP. Please share with us your views.

Read More

More stories on our page Read articles about St Helena.

Article: “St Helena’s Forgotten Currency Board

by Steve Hanke and Matt Sekerke, Johns Hopkins University, retrieved from www.sthelenacurrency.gov.sh, downloadable here as a .pdf file (28.2Kb){9}

Below: Life before the Currency BoardSt Helena’s high pointSterling holds swayThe Currency Board solutionA good deal all roundInsulated from GovernmentLessons from St Helena

The tiny isle of St Helena was discovered in 1502 and settled permanently by the East India Company in 1659. It was only after the British dispatched Napoleon to its shores in 1815 that St Helena became a real ‘place,’ however.

In the monetary sphere, St Helena wasn’t on the map until 1976. Until then, the British dependency did not have its own unit of account and primarily used currencies issued elsewhere. That changed, however, when the passage of the Currency Fund Ordinance of 1975 and the Currency Regulations of 1976 established a currency board and the new St Helena pound became legal tender. Surprisingly - given the burgeoning currency board literature - St Helena’s currency board remains unreported. In what follows, we correct that oversight.

Life before the Currency Board

From the beginning of the East India Company’s administration, sterling was the official unit of account in St Helena. Nevertheless, the predominant circulation was Spanish dollars, not pounds. In 1684 an Order in Council introduced St Helena’s first unique coinage, a series of copper bars stamped with their weight and valued at one penny per ounce. This awkward money was refused by ships calling at the island and shunned by St Helenians. Consequently, the unwieldy copper bars had more or less disappeared by the early eighteenth century. Such too would be the fate of St Helena’s later forays into the coinage business. As an active port of call - owing to its strategic placement in the middle of trans-Atlantic trade routes - St Helena hosted traders from around the world, merchants laden with the international currencies of the day. St Helena became a sort of exchange house on the high seas in which currencies traded at rates fixed by the council.

When the council’s fixed rates of exchange departed from those prevailing in the world markets, visiting traders spotted arbitrage opportunities and exploited them ruthlessly. In some cases, the island was virtually depleted of currency in the process. For example, legislation devaluing Spanish pieces of eight from 6s to 5s in March 1708 allowed traders to buy Spanish dollars cheap in St Helena and sell them dear in Madras at the 6s rate. Soon the East India Company needed to order new coins struck to provide the cash-strapped island with circulation. The company’s quick action was key to reviving St Helena’s economy in the early 18th century. In time, however, gold pagodas and Venetian florins, undervalued in India, returned to fill St Helena’s vaults and further lubricate the island’s commercial activity.

St Helena’s high point

This situation prevailed into the early 1800s, when St Helena reached its zenith. With the arrival of Napoleon and his extensive entourage in 1815, the island’s population doubled and trading activity and the demand for money trebled. The council’s catalogue of official exchange rates reveals the staggering array of currencies circulating on the island in 1823, two years after Napoleon’s death.

After the post-Napoleon slump, St Helena (and many other British possessions) faced a new challenge as a result of fluctuations in the gold price of silver. The old parities for silver standard currencies vis-a-vis gold standard currencies became obsolete when the price of silver fell. Arbitrageurs sold silver currencies in St Helena and other locales where the old exchange rates prevailed, at high cost to those territories. Gresham’s Law struck with a vengeance.

Such exchange-rate difficulties arose not long after St Helena was handed over to the Crown in 1834. Orders in Council adjusting parities to market levels solved the problem, albeit at a cost. St Helena took the first such action on July 15 1843, when most foreign coins were exchanged for silver and sent away to be melted into bullion. Spanish doubloons and dollars remained in circulation alongside sterling at the rate of 4/2d. A subsequent decline of the Spanish dollar from 4/2d. to 3/8d. in 1879 prompted the St Helena Council to demonetise the Spanish coins, leaving sterling as the sole official medium.

Sterling holds sway

Sterling remained the exclusive legal tender until the passage of the St Helena Coinage Order of 1925. This order made legal tender in St Helena “all coins which are legal tender coins in the United Kingdom under the Coinage Acts of 1870 and 1891 and all silver coins which are legal tender in the Union of South Africa under the Coinage Act, 1922”. By legalising South Africa’s currency, the council hoped to lay the groundwork for a more formidable trading relationship with South Africa. Unfortunately, that relationship failed to develop. The government ultimately replaced the 1925 measure with the Currency, Coinage and Legal Tender Ordinance, No. 5 of 1948, as amended by Ordinance No. 12 of 1949, “which provided, inter alia, that [St Helena’s] currency should be Bank of England notes and United Kingdom coins which are legal tender in the United Kingdom from time to time”.

The only branch of a foreign commercial bank to operate in St Helena was the Standard Bank of British South Africa, a corporate ancestor of today’s Standard Chartered Bank. It operated briefly from 1864 to 1865 and was closed for commercial reasons. At that time, St Helena was rapidly declining as a port of call because steamships began to replace sailing ships and could bypass the island without obtaining provisions. Today, banking on the island is carried out by the Government Savings Bank{11}.

The Currency Board solution

It was in this context that St Helena passed the Currency Fund Ordinance of 1975 and the Currency Regulations of 1976 in the interest of generating seigniorage revenue. These measures established a currency board, giving the island its first unique legal tender currency. The currency fund issues the St Helena pound, which is at parity with the pound sterling, in denominations from 1p coins to £20 notes. As of March 31 2001, there was £3,480,256 in circulation, or roughly £480 per capita. The currency fund’s story, like that of any currency board, is told by its financial statements.

A good deal all round

The currency fund is managed on behalf of St Helena’s Commissioners by Crown Agents Asset Management, Ltd. Formerly a British public corporation, Crown Agents is now a private firm owned by the Crown Agents Foundation, whose members include other firms, NGOs, the British government, and various international agencies. Crown Agents Asset Management charges a fee of 0.5% of the market value of the funds under management (a ‘safe custody’ charge of 0.02% was added in fiscal year 2001). Orthodox currency boards are characterised by small staffs and low expense, with expenses typically amounting to 0.5-1% of total assets. The currency fund is no exception.

The fund’s foreign assets are UK gilts and bank deposits, both denominated in sterling, and the bullion value of commemorative coins in circulation is likewise included. Ten-year gilts have been the investment of choice. The currency fund’s bank deposits are kept in overseas banks and have been moved around of late between several banks.

The currency fund holds deposits in the St Helena Treasury, and the latter provides the Fund with cash overdraft facilities. The currency board has also provided the Treasury with a tidy source of revenue, averaging £300,000 in operating profit each year, or about 5% of the Treasury’s self-generated revenue. The Fund’s balance sheet makes it clear that the currency board operates very close to orthodox currency board rules. It does not hold any domestic assets, does not regulate banks, and therefore has no scope for engaging in sterilisation or introducing a domestic monetary policy. Its only deviation from orthodoxy is the relatively large foreign exchange cover for its monetary liabilities, which has ranged from 117% to 138%. Orthodox currency boards of the British colonies typically operated with 110-115% cover.

Insulated from Government

This small departure from orthodoxy is no cause for alarm, however, because the board remains insulated from the kind of government and banking sector shenanigans which recently engulfed Argentina’s unorthodox currency board. Argentina’s unorthodox board suffered from wild fluctuations in its foreign exchange cover of its monetary liabilities and in its net domestic assets, as it engaged in aggressive sterilisation. Although the unorthodox currency boards in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hong Kong and Lithuania have avoided the problems encountered in Argentina, they, too, have scope for sterilisation and have used it. By contrast, the currency fund has no scope for sterilisation.

Lessons from St Helena

Since the currency board was introduced, the St Helena pound has been trouble free. With the currency board, the Treasury has also gained a source of revenue which reduces, in part, the island’s dependence on the United Kingdom. Judging by this example, currency board orthodoxy pays, and other currency boards should draw lessons from St Helena’s experience. Clearly, other small territories (not to mention the 61 larger countries identified in Hanke, 2002) would benefit from following St Helena’s example. Each has a central bank that issues a domestic currency. In all cases, a currency board would be more suitable than a central bank.

Answer to “how much is: two dolphins, a Jonathan and a tuna?

A dolphin is 10p; a Jonathan is 5p; a tuna is 1p. So two dolphins, a Jonathan and a tuna is 2 x 10p + 5p + 1p = 26p.

closinghumourimage [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]

Laugh at funny coins humour - LOL [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]


Credits:

{a} St Helena Sentinel, 25th February 2016{9}

{b} St Helena Sentinel, 17th March 2016{9}



Footnotes:

{1} Which it actually shares with Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha.

{2} Note that although the coins are also used in Tristan da Cunha that island’s name does not appear on them.

{3} Officially St Helena is no longer a ‘Colony’, it is now an ‘overseas territory’.

{4} Tuna is fished locally using rod-and-line and is therefore Dolphin Friendly - an important part of our fishing industry.

{5} “Legal Tender” (in layman’s terms) means that these notes/coins MUST be accepted in payment of a bill or debt. Other notes and coins CAN be accepted, but the other party is under no obligation to do so. So a retailer can choose to accept a UK banknote, but they are obliged to accept a St Helena one.

{6} There are no slot machines or coin-counting machines on St Helena so the varying sizes do not cause any problems.

{7} The motto “auspicio regis et senatus angliæ” translates as “By command of the King and Parliament of England” and was actually the motto of the East India Company, which ‘owned’ St Helena from 1657 to 1834.

{8} Including moonbeamsforall.com: Moonbeams Shop • opens in a new window or tab [Saint Helena Island Info:Notes and Coins of St Helena]Moonbeams Shop.

{9} Reproduced for educational non-commercial use only; all copyrights are acknowledged.

{10} Effectively the island’s parliament. More on our Government page.

{11} Replaced by the Bank of St Helena in 2004.

{12} Page 6, “St Helena - Bull, Bear or Chicken?{9}.



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